在规则内犯规

现代物理学里有一个概念,叫做熵(entropy),大致是指体系的混乱程度。人们发现,自然界发生的一切自动的过程,都会遵循熵增原理,即在没有外力作用下,任何一个过程的发展都会使体系的熵增大,有序性降低。自然状态下的发展演变,实际就是体系逐渐走向混乱无序的过程。

春秋代序,时代更迭,人类社会历经数个阶段,由蛮荒走向文明,若非一系列政治经济文化规则的制定和道德体系的约束,想必此刻已近佛教六道轮回中的修罗界,弱肉强食,倾轧争夺,此消彼长,你死我活。

人类自诞生之日起便掌控于自然的规则中,同时也开辟了属于自己的规则。大至政策法律法规、对外经贸条例,小至数学运算法则、考场严禁作弊。规则的制定,让人们得以在同一起点平等地竞争与合作,在相对有限的范围内最大限度地实现价值化,戴着镣铐翩翩起舞。

规则在规范个体行为方面具有优势,自然在其他方面会存在劣势,那就是限制了存在的可能性。据说斯蒂芬·霍金曾经试图寻找一条被他成为“时序保护猜想(chronology protection conjecture)”的物理规则,以驳斥和禁止时间旅行的可能性。所幸这项工作后来太监了,于是大话西游依旧经典,Star Trek 屹立不倒,科幻爱好者仍能天马行空地YY。

同时,聪明人则学会了在规则内犯规。既非明目张胆地打破前人恪守的秩序,同时又开创了有利于自己的条件。其他人除了吹胡子干瞪眼,完全不能奈何。

在规则内犯规,大致有如下三种类型:

一是利用规则漏洞,投机倒把,达到目的。市场经济的自发性,大抵属于此种。奸猾的商贩钻法律条文的漏洞、开恶劣风气之先河,往往使消费者暗吃哑巴亏,又查证无门。吴晓波的《激荡三十年》,生动揭示了改革开放以来中国企业经历的一系列躁动和不安,许多后来崛起的知名企业,都曾有过暗流涌动的黑箱往事。牛更生毫不讳言创办蒙牛期间采用的种种非常规的野蛮生长手段。俞敏洪如今在回顾新东方成立之初满大街贴小广告遭捕时,也将递烟陪酒喝到出血的潜规则,讲得慷慨激昂,义正言辞。

上午逛学校附近的庙会,期间抱着“走进科学百科探秘”的心情斥巨资2元进入一间号称内有双头人、阴阳人等奇人奇事的山寨窝棚围观。进去之后发现双头人、阴阳人什么的倒是的确存在,只是跟窝棚外面的劣质PS广告图大相径庭。里面那些,原来只是泡在福尔马林里的人类死胎。所谓双头人,阴阳人,不过双胞胎,龙凤胎而已。

类似的还有国外早期的比较广告、股票代理人挪用客户资金、淘宝网店刷信誉等。凡此种种,大抵属为人不齿。当然也不排除巧妙地利用规则,典型的应用是NBA里的犯规战术。一方非恶意犯规,只为争取控球权或是抢下仅剩的几秒关键时间。

此种类型的另一个有趣代表是巧妙利用游戏中的BUG。BUG者,程序漏洞是也。程序员不经意的一个疏忽,可能造成用户无法估量的损失,但也可能带来意外彩蛋。例如在时下流行的DotA中,使用屠夫藏身隐蔽树丛施放暗钩,有可能将对手钩入四面环树的死胡同里卡住。如果对手既没带吃树又没法传送,那很有可能会一直在里面默默杯具着,直到整场比赛结束,这才算打完酱油。

对于电子游戏玩家,S/L大法或许更为熟悉。在游戏重要节点前预先Save,一旦壮烈,立即Load,如此反复,直至破关。玩家本身并没有采用金手指等改变游戏自身编码和运行方式的手段,只是借助了系统选单里最基本的功能,然而却起到了魂斗罗“上上下下左右左右BA”的秘籍效果。

顺便提一句,利用秘籍进行游戏不能算是利用规则漏洞。秘籍通常是开发者在游戏制作和测试阶段用于调试的手段,在游戏封装发布后部分保留,以供玩家娱乐,属于“正当的非正当手段”。

二是在既有规则基础上,另辟蹊径,寻求他法。二战时诺曼底登陆开辟了除苏联战场外的第二战场,沉重打击了法西斯,加速了其灭亡。德黑兰会议为英美苏三方扭转不利局势、牵制正面攻击,起到了举足轻重的作用。这是属于铁血战场的游戏伎俩,但兵不厌诈,用兵之道本身就是逆向思维,充满犯规的过程(当然不包括杀信使、坑战俘、掐断人道救助途径这样的犯规)。

此外,原本强调身体素质和运动技巧的体育比赛,也越来越多地融入了心理战的技巧。举重选手上场前的大喝一声,拳击手登台时凌空挥拳,除为自身壮胆减压,更意在敲山震虎,告诉对手,爷来了,你丫的等死吧。周星驰1994年有一部电影《破坏之王》,片尾手无缚鸡之力的外卖仔周星驰迎战放倒天下无敌手的“断水流”大师兄,靠的就是(与吴孟达场下合作的)心理战术。

玩三国杀时,利用心理学技巧,通过语言试探和生理刺激,判断某人的身份,也是一种方法。想学习的杀友都先去恶补下美剧《Lie to Me》。

在同质化严重、品种日益趋同的时代,定位、细分、长尾这些流行概念,本质上也是一种避免正面规则较量而开辟主场优势的手段。创意行业,特别是广告行业从业人员,则尤其强调“在规则内犯规”的打擦边球技能,否则容易陷入平庸。

三是认识利用并间接引导和改变规则。相较前两者,这算是比较高端和复杂的一种,实施难度较高,且成王败寇。

传统时空观认为,质量物体坐落于xyz三维空间和t时间轴内,谨守着时空的秩序。实际上,任何质量的物体作为时空秩序的一部分,也在影响着时空,使时空发生弯曲。世间万物,莫不如此,只要它具有质量,只是表现是否显著的差异而已。此刻身边的时空,都因你我的存在而发生了变化。我们有力量改变客观神秘的时空规则,对于主观制定的体制性规则,则更具主观能动性。

三流企业做产品,二流企业做服务,一流企业做标准。这里的标准,就是指行业的规则。希望在市场竞争中手执牛耳的企业,通过开发优秀产品和技术标准,成为消费者心智和工商局审批的领军企业,最终使自身标准上升为全行业需要遵守的标准,打破旧有行业格局,这就是 改变 影响(企业本身并不具有政府机构的制定标准的权利)了游戏规则,成为游戏的主人。

日剧《欺诈游戏(Liar Game)》第一季里的“少数决”游戏也堪称引导改变游戏规则的经典。女主人公在近乎绝境的情况下,被爱装逼的男主角神奇而巧妙地解围,并获得决断其他参赛者生死的权利。具体过程不再赘述,可以参考Matrix67的这篇文章

最后表明立场。我支持以智力手段、为正义目的和公众利益而采取的规则内犯规行为。

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  20. @plidezus, 最后那个,我的意思大致是影响规则制定者,影响规则制定流程,但并不亲自成为规则制定者。大概有点你说的意思吧。

    关于多样性也是我最近想研究的一个话题,诸子百家那个我同意,但不构成反对意见,因为诸子百家战国争霸也是有政治和军事规则的,毕竟不同于茹毛饮血牲口干仗。

  21. 私以为,最后那个不算规则内犯规了,算是改写规则了。
    第二项是另辟蹊径,还算是规则内的东西。
    只有第一条是真正的犯规,但是原始积累都是血腥和肮脏的。

    第三条中,杜比公司可谓最快成为标准的例子。

    但是对于法律这种规则,就害怕1,2,3条中的任何一条,这都是无法接受的。

    对于第一段有不同的看法。如果没有春秋战国,就没有诸子百家,为啥那时候百家争鸣,统一后却丝毫不见长进呢?因为生态系统趋于统一,就是近亲结婚的多了,2的孩子就多了。

    以后在你博客回复就长点,作为话题讨论吧哈哈~

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