职场社交巨头 LinkedIn 的用户激活秘诀

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LinkedIn(领英)是国际知名的职场社交服务,正式上线于 2003 年。它致力于为职场活动提供更方便的交流社区的理念,让不少具有前瞻性的公司职员、媒体人和猎头看到了它的潜力,成为了早期的种子用户。遗憾的是,起初竟有高达 50% 的注册用户是沉默用户,网站的用户量和活跃度增长一度止步不前。CEO 杰夫·韦勒(Jeff Weiner)深知用户的数量与结成的关系网络深度直接决定了其价值的大小。为此,他带领团队进行了一连串 Growth Hacking 的试验,旨在提高每一个用户的潜在联系人数量,从而增强社区黏性,提高用户活跃度和用户增长速度。

他们首先调研了新注册用户愿意邀请的朋友数量,经过反复试验,最终确定了“4”这一魔法数字。当新注册用户到达“邀请好友”页面时,如果系统默认建议用户邀请的朋友数量少于 4 人,则他们很可能会轻易地忽略这一步骤;如果多于 4 人,则可能会让用户感到焦虑和麻烦;而不偏不倚刚好 4 人,能实现最大程度的邀请转化率。

LinkedIn 早期的邀请方式是向用户的好友发送邮件。最早的邮件文案客套生硬,毫无吸引力。直到他们将文案优化为——“我在浏览人脉网络时看到了你。让我们互加为好友吧,我将很乐意满足你的请求,并提供后续可能的帮助。这将有助于我们组建更强大的人脉网络。”这一简洁有力的叙述,阐明了邀请信发出的原因、希望对方做的事情,特别是给对方带来的潜在价值。这些努力带来了数量可观(但增长缓慢的)病毒传播。

遗憾的是 LinkedIn 也发现,在通过邮件邀请带来的用户里,仅有不到 25% 的人会继续主动添加更多联系人,大部分人注册进来之后只原封不动地保持着与他们各自邀请者的好友关系,很难再增加新的联系人。

如何才能方便高效地让用户不断更新自己的联系人列表,从而持续保证平台上的活跃度呢?他们发起了新的尝试——允许用户导入自己邮箱通讯录里的联系人(这一策略在今天看来再平常不过,但在 2004 年却是一项创新之举)。

当时通过输入第三方在线邮箱服务的账号密码来导入联系人有一定的难度,用户并没有这样的操作习惯,而且实际上可导入的联系人也并不多。为了解决这一问题, LinkedIn 专门开发了适用于本地邮件收发软件 Outlook 的插件,用户下载安装后,将可帮助他们自动导入存储在本地的通讯录联系人。这一举动促使 7% 的新用户上传了他们的通讯录,也让邀请朋友加入的比率骤升了 30%。

通过现有朋友关系间的邀请与导入依然存在局限。LinkedIn 发现平均每收到 3.2 封邀请邮件,才会产生一次新用户的转化。为此他们又试着在用户的个人资料上做文章,想从中挖掘出更多社交潜力。

当新用户注册时,被邀请填写当前所在的公司与职位,数据显示超过 90% 的人都愿意填写。于是 LinkedIn 很聪明地在这一环节增加了联系人推荐——立即列出同样所属该公司的相关用户的名单,新注册者只需要简单的勾选,就能马上与这些潜在的同事建立连接。这个开创性的动作,打破了此前基于现成邮箱联系人的单一连接维度,将存在于线下的同事关系搬到了网上。试验初尝甜头后,LinkedIn 很快又在新用户注册环节增加了“请输入以往公司与职位”的填写。人们能借此对职业生涯进行梳理,与过往的老同事形成交流,并有助于开启新的职业生涯。(关注微信公众号 growthhackerbook 获取更多内容)

这一被称为“重建关系流(Reconnect Flow)”的创意,其聪明之处不仅在于直接有效地增加了新用户的连接数量,还能够美化用户的个人资料页面,对外提供更多有价值的展示信息,这将有助于后续的自然互动。并且,随着新用户的不断注册加入,老用户也会时不时被动地收到新用户的添加好友邀请,这有助于唤回他们,维持活跃。

经过优化,LinkedIn 的 PV 提升了 41%,站内搜索量提升了 33%,用户个人资料页面的信息完成度提升了 38%。人们乐意在注册阶段尽可能多地提供相关信息,否则会感觉自己的档案页面是“不完整”的。尽管上述流程后来被挪到了用户注册完成后,也同样使邀请数量上升了 16%。

以上的整个病毒传播的设计,在 LinkedIn 内部被称为“双重病毒循环(Double Viral Loop)”——新注册用户源源不断地带来更多用户,同时老用户也会时不时回来看看,处理请求,或者主动发起好友邀请。两个循环同时发生,同时奏效。截至2008年,LinkedIn 获得了累积 1300万 的注册用户。

2012 年,产品增长负责人埃利奥特·施姆科勒(Elliot Schmukler)为 LinkedIn 带来了新的奇迹。在调研中他发现,随着用户量的增加,成员之间的活跃程度也两极分化日益明显:那些在职场中左右逢源游刃有余的人,往往在网上也有更大优势,于是他们使用 LinkedIn 更加积极频繁;而原本埋头肯干的默默无闻者,在网上也同样低调内敛,不为人知。这一差异直接带来的影响是:每当 LinkedIn 发送一封通知邮件,告知用户的个人主页被浏览时,那些原本的活跃者点开链接的概率高达 20%,而非活跃者仅有不到 5% 愿意响应。

换做别人,可能会去想如何向不活跃者发送更多邮件,或者干脆放弃他们。但埃利奥特的策略更为巧妙——他试图将活跃者与非活跃者联系起来,而纽带则是“声誉(endorsement)”系统。这个新上线的功能模块能够让用户为任何好友做出评价,给他们贴上擅长领域的标签,如“Web 前端开发”、“企业经营”、“互联网投资”。这些标签将显示在被评价者的个人主页上,并默认根据评判次数降序排列。有了这个功能,即使再神华内敛、不擅自我包装的人,也能在他人的好意背书下突显出自己不为人知的技能特质,展现出更光鲜的简历,并因此吸引更多人的目光。而人们又往往是互利互惠的,一时间彼此互贴标签蔚然成风,那些原本沉寂无名的低调看客们终于也有理由加入了狂欢。声誉系统上线的这一年,配合其他简约化改革和移动客户端的推出, LinkedIn 迎来突飞猛进的一年。LinkedIn 高级副总裁迪普•尼沙尔(Deep Nishar)在接受 BusinessInsider 的访谈时,自豪地承认声誉系统将显而易见地成为未来职场人士的推荐信。

在十余年的发展过程中,LinkedIn 始终致力于激发用户活跃、连接彼此网络的探寻,也在不同阶段进行了不同的尝试,并适时延续成功的策略、摈弃过时的套路,不断推陈出新,其许多开创性的尝试都被后人沿用在更加广泛的领域,如招聘、二手交易、聊天交友等。(完)

127 thoughts on “职场社交巨头 LinkedIn 的用户激活秘诀”

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