我的个人知识管理工具 [PKM]

# 这篇文章原本发表在个人博客。考虑到同步控和 GTDer 也有需求,因此特转刊于此。GTDStudy 的 Yibie 说我无意中完成了完整工具链的构造。其实什么工具链不工具链的,就是平时一点点使用经验的积累,个人的懒惰助长了我寻求工具借力的需求而已。

之前曾写过一篇《我的时间管理(GTD)工具》。应网友要求,再分享一下我的个人知识管理(Personal Knowledge Management,PKM)工具。

为什么要进行知识管理:

  • 这是一个将被动的“海绵式学习”(单纯吸收)转变为主动的“淘金式学习”(注重批判及与知识的互动)的过程,通过一系列的知识管理过程(收集->组织->分析->总结->实践->发表->对话),将别人的知识技能固化到自己的头脑中。
  • 知识爆炸,信息过载时代,相对有限的记忆力系统应当善于对所摄取的内容进行合理整顿,否则极易迷失在信息的海洋中,辨不清何智慧,知识与信息三者之间的区别。
  • 个人学业和专业需要,有时候想方案做创意并不是简单地拍一下脑袋或者搜索一下就能出来的,需要长期的积累,才能达到“万物皆备于我”的境界。
  • 长不出钱钟书的脑袋,咱配合现代化手段,效法一下钱的研习精神,还不行嘛。

我选择知识管理工具的标准:

  • 功能强大,能以相对低廉的成本和图形化界面,完成知识的收集、分类、存储、检索、重构。
  • 可扩展,能跟外部程序交换数据(导入/导出),支持同步,可保留镜像。
  • 工具本身并不会加重我的信息焦虑。

我使用的知识管理工具:

1、Google Reader + Gmail

我每天必用 Google 旗下服务,将其当做个人知识整理系统的关键中枢。Google Reader 是我的主力RSS阅读器,Gmail则是主力邮箱。二者相互结合,可以实现知识信息的有效组织。

如下图,在GR中看到值得收藏的文章,可点击文章下部的Email按钮,将其发送为电子邮件。通常我会在邮件中加注关键词,并标记上“#kms”(这里含义是 knowledge management system,你可以修改为任何你喜欢的)。

同时,我在Gmail邮箱中新增了一个过滤器,过滤条件是“#kms”,处理方法是自动存档(archieve)、标记为已读(mark read)、添加标签(“KMS” label)。这样一来,每当我收到用上述方法转发的GR阅读收藏,系统将会自动为我完成信息的归档分拣工作。配合 Google 强大的搜索功能,今后可以方便地查询整理这些内容。如下图。

GR的另一个方便知识输出分享的小技巧是使用“发送到(Send to)”按钮。这篇《Google Reader “send to” 使用集锦》提供了扩充 Send to 按钮的一些方法。如下图,我添加了豆瓣、人人、Delicious等服务。

2、WizKnowledge(为知个人知识管理)

WizKnowledge 是网文快捕作者开发的知识管理工具,除支持多级分类、标签、搜索、编辑器这些最基本的功能外,更提供桌面任务便签、日历功能。通过插件扩展,还可下载 Google Calendar 、 Google Docs 数据,实现单向同步。软件自带同步功能,免费提供100M空间,可将程序数据同步到官方服务器。

WizKnowledge 官方网站:http://www.wiz.cn/

关于此工具,同步控有一篇详细的图文介绍,点击传送

3、Read It Later

严格地说,Read It Later 并不是一款知识管理工具,而是轻量级的信息分拣和存储工具。

如其名称,它可通过多种方式(浏览器工具栏、插件、移动设备客户端)将信息标注为“稍后阅读(read it later)”状态。这样你可以不必打断自己手头的工作,而将临时涌现出的信息存入 Read It Later 的未读列表(Unread List)中。等空闲的时候再回过头来查看。

Read It Later 界面清爽,功能也专一,但在个人定制性上偏弱。为此我还特地自己仿照它的界面,用PHP山寨了一个类似的工具(我给它命名为Rdo),置入我的 Chrome 标签栏。由于没开发多用户登录机制,就不提供页面演示了,给个截图吧:

4、自建基于WordPress的Wiki+Viigo阅读器

我的自建Wiki,说到底有名无实,因为并没有使用真正的Wiki程序搭建,还是偷懒用了WordPress。

考虑到这个Wiki只供我个人使用,无需考虑用户体验、组织形式,于是只简单地进行了安装,并随便找了款皮肤,就横空出世了。我甚至从不给新添加的文章条目插入more标签,导致页面冗长。管它呢,自己用的。

“冰哥喂鸡”入口:http://www.fanbing.net/wiki/

如果想建立比较专业的Wiki站点,还是推荐专门的程序,例如适合国情的 HDWiki(来自互动百科的开源程序),或者 MediaWiki(Wikipedia用的就是这个)。

我又用黑莓上的免费阅读软件 Viigo 订阅了自己Wiki的RSS,在睡前进行第二轮复习回顾,进一步加深知识印象。(顺便说一句,Viigo 这软件不错,支持Web端管理订阅源,还能查询天气和证券市场。英文。)

5、微博客

微博客以其方便快捷、简短精要、多种输入方式,适合知识的即时存入,特别是灵感瞬间迸发时的随手记录。因此我就专门开辟了一个微博客,作为灵感素材记录本,同时使用QQ/MSN/GTalk/Web/SMS更新。

目前支持同步微博的工具日益涌现,早期国产的嘀咕做啥,近期的Follow5微博通围着脖子推等,都可以将某一微博的内容即时传递到其它微博。这相当于同时在几个网站上进行了备份。个人觉得这样很必要,毕竟现在墙里墙外都不靠谱,多一处镜像,数据就多一份保险。

但缺陷也很明显,目前尚未有哪一家微博客网站提供完整的数据打包服务,因此所有内容只能算暂时寄放在别人的地盘。搜索方面也不尽人意,即时搜索、全站搜索的精确度有待提升。

6、Dropbox

目前知识管理工具尚无配备统一的标准,各家服务自行其是,缺乏有效的互通方式。Dropbox 是优秀的网络同步硬盘服务,可以用来自动同步数据内容,实现在多台电脑同时管理本地电脑的知识库。

典型应用:Google Docs + GDocBackup + Dropbox (用 GDocBackup 下载自己的 Google Docs 文档到本地,再通过 Dropbox 同步备份)。

关于 Dropbox 的使用技巧,请参考同步控的系列专题:1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5

7、博客及其他

知识管理的最后环节是分享(发表)和互动(对话)。博客是一种不错的实现方式。实际上我现在总结个人的知识管理工具,就是一种基于经历和实践的分享,目的在于传递知识,并在与读者交流中获得新的发现。

Google Docs 自不必说,但碍于鬼斧墙的威胁,不敢大张旗鼓,一怕信息随时无预兆丢失,二怕连累这款优秀的服务,毕竟我每日接触的信息里也少不了境外敏感词。

豆瓣也是我常去淘书和淘片的地方,看后常会留下评论,或仔细整理,或即兴简评。我的豆瓣评论我的豆瓣主页

另外还有其他自建服务,例如网络相册等。

最后是提问环节:请大家推荐优秀的思维导图工具,XP的。目前试用的两款感觉一般,就不在这里吐槽了。

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  • 冰哥,这里有一个问题。

    话说在你上文讲GTD的那篇里,开头【屠格涅夫说:“等待的方法有两种,一种是什么事也不做地空等,另一种是一边等,一边把事情向前推动。”】这句话,怎样收录到自己的PKM系统中去?

    当时我脑子就乱了,一会想把它作为空文件夹的命名,一会想把它放在日记里,一会想建立一个素材.txt然后把它放进去……无比纠结!

    求救!

  • 很惭愧,我用的是ScrapBook,firefox上的一个插件。因为我需要在我网页上做笔记,保存到本地,然后对其添加标签。查找的时候,进行全文搜索可以方便地找出来。

  • @谙恋法兰西, 你架设了没?我去围观下。

  • Wiki站点程序是我想要的,感觉博主的推荐。

  • 看看会不会和上面的头像一样

  • 巧,最近正在关注这个,主要还是用boogunote+freemind

  • 我选择的是Evernote

  • @帅哥, 域名很自恋,木哇哈哈。

  • @itfan, 严格来说,wiki更强调多人协作,编写的条目也容易形成彼此之间的联接,且可以保留修改版本。Blog么,写什么都可以。个人感觉wordpress装上强大的插件,一点不输给专业的wiki程序。

  • 提到的目前仅用过Google Reader+Gmail

  • 我用wiz,感觉挺棒的。有空还要建一个自己的wiki,可是我到现在还没有把wiki和blog分开,到底这两个怎么来区分呢?我有了想法是写博还是写wiki?只是形式的区别?

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